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history-library.com -> Добавить материалы на сайт -> Археология -> Дзиговский А.Н. -> "Стеклянная посуда как историческое явление в памятниках скифо-сарматского времени Украины, Молдовы и Российского подонья " -> 56

Стеклянная посуда как историческое явление в памятниках скифо-сарматского времени Украины, Молдовы и Российского подонья - Дзиговский А.Н.

Дзиговский А.Н., Островерхов А.С. Стеклянная посуда как историческое явление в памятниках скифо-сарматского времени Украины, Молдовы и Российского подонья — Одесса, 2000. — 264 c.
ISBN 966-7609-01-4
Скачать (прямая ссылка): steklyannayaposudaskifov2000.djvu
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The glass as material and glass-working as a branch of the handicraft production had an outstanding role in the human history. These inventions brought the important innovations in the life of ancient population of the Eastern Europe. During the long time (the 3rd — mid of the 1st millennia BC) the glass artifacts were represented only of the simple type beads at the archaeological sites of this region.
In the Greek and Roman period came a new stage of the glassware consumption of the Black Sea littoral inhabitants. In this time, the glassware were imported besides the various adornments made of glass paste at the North Black Sea coast. The inhabitants of the Greek cities were the main consumers of these goods. Through the time, these artifacts have been began to penetrate into the barbarian way of life.
In this monograph we had attempt to study completely the glassware finds from the archaeological sites of the modern Ukraine, Moldova and the Russian Don rivers area of the Scythian (the 5th — 3 rd centuries BC) and the Sarmatian (the 2nd century BC — 4th century AD) periods. The glass consumption by the Late Scythian population at the Crimea and the Chernyakhov culture inhabitants is a special problem and we don’t broach it.
The glassware appearance in far area of the Eastern European continent, we have scrutinize through the historical situation, which forming at this region during the millennium, but not only artifact analysis. The glassware have been exam-
ines through the different spheres are their material, production, art, aesthetic and so on. We study the glassware as a part of a special archaeological source and examines it the generally accepted methods, also ones employs with made of glass artifacts analysis.
The vessels which found in the sites of the Scythian period, may subdivide of their using as the table and perfumes ones. The table glassware are represented the moulded phialae with leaf design and «Phoenician» bottles of perfume. These phialae in the Kurdzips barrow nearby Maykop, Tolstaya Mogila and the cult complex at Semenovka village near the Greek city Tyra were found. The polychrome small bottles of perfume are going on the Kurdzips barrow, barrow No. 4/1 of a group by Dedova Mogila at the Lower Dnieper area, the burial ground Petukhovka near Olbia, and one barrow nearby Smela town at the Middle Dnieper region.
The authors have reason to suppose through a spectral analysis of the phialae from Kurdzips, Tolstaya Mogila and Semenovka (Tabl. 2) and the «Phoenician» bottles of perfume from Olbia, Panticapaeum , Niconium, Tyra and the several other Greek centres of the North Pontus (Tabl. 3), that a manufacture centre or centres of the like production is necessary to search for not in Egypt or the Mesopotamia, but somewhere in the Graeco-Anatolian region, Ionia, Phoenicia or at the Greek islands. The scholars propose that the some parts of vases with leaf design had been made of the glass semi-finished product at the several large cities of the North Black Sea littoral (Panticapaeum and Olbia), which were delivered from the overseas workshops.
The glassware number and range, which have been consumed by the Eastern Europe barbarian populations are grow considerable during the Sarmatian period. It was connected with the technique of glass-blowing method invented in about the mid of the 1st century BC, that became cheaper considerable the similar production.
The table-ware are represents the glasses, goblets, phialae, beakers, kantharoi, jugs, dishes and plates. The bottles of perfume are includes the balsamarii (spice containers), aryballoi and globular small bottles. Typological and chemicotechnologi-cal examinations (Tabl. 4) had been showed the various origin of these artifacts. A part of these was manufactured at the Eastern Mediterranean, others one, at the Apennines peninsula and the western Roman provinces. A part of the glassware were came from the North Black Sea littoral.
The beginning of glassware consumption by the Eastern Europe barbarian population is a historical phenomenon. It is a new stage of the glass introduction by the inhabitants of this extensive region. The glassware used rarely in the every day life during the Scytho-Sarmatian period. These, as a rule, have been intended for ideological requirements of the ancient societies. The great number of the similar artifacts took place in the funeral and cult complexes. Not only the glass artifacts, but glass as material have been thought sacral. The repeated finds of the pottery vessels with glass inlays in their bases, which in the archaeological complexes of Europe were found are testifies about.
Furthermore a sacral meaning, the glassware had the high material value. When the Romans introduced the technique of glass-blowing and arranged the mass production of glassware, the common artifacts value is go down. But the fine works of art are rates highly. The similar ones appreciates considerable among the barbarian tribes, where the glassware have been imported of the limited in number. Also, the very expensive artifacts were formed part of «the gifts» for the various local chiefs.
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