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history-library.com -> Добавить материалы на сайт -> Археология -> Дзиговский А.Н. -> "Стеклянная посуда как историческое явление в памятниках скифо-сарматского времени Украины, Молдовы и Российского подонья " -> 57

Стеклянная посуда как историческое явление в памятниках скифо-сарматского времени Украины, Молдовы и Российского подонья - Дзиговский А.Н.

Дзиговский А.Н., Островерхов А.С. Стеклянная посуда как историческое явление в памятниках скифо-сарматского времени Украины, Молдовы и Российского подонья — Одесса, 2000. — 264 c.
ISBN 966-7609-01-4
Скачать (прямая ссылка): steklyannayaposudaskifov2000.djvu
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The effigies upon bowls painted with enamel dyes, may be shows by the ideological views of the Sarmatae in this time. The clear evidence is an image of the two fighting roosters on beaker from barrow 28/1, Vysochino-VII burial ground at the Lower Don, and points to the Greek ideas penetration into the nomadic
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environment. This scene explains as a symbol of the defunct victory over their enemies.
There are various ways of the glassware penetration into the Eastern Europe far areas and separate territories. Some scholars supposed, that the leaf pattern phialae are come to the Eastern Europe by the caravan tracks through the Caucasian passes, going round the Pontic colonies. In the light of modern source study data base, this point of view is lose its meaning. Such phialae last finds at Scythia, shows the even spreading about all territory of the steppe Scythia and the North Caucasus. The great number of the Greek import, which have the numerous analogies through the artifacts at the Hellenic cities of the South Russia, in the Scythian and Maeotic archaeological complexes with the analogous phialae had been found. Likewise situation in a case of the so-called «Phoenician» bottles of perfume. The Graeco-Roman trading tracks into Scythia are very well known.
The trading ways of the glassware, which coming into the Eastern Europe various regions during the Sarmatian period are more compound. It is connects with the new large centres of glass-working, appeared in the first centuries AD at the Apennines peninsula, the western Roman provinces, the Greek cities of the North-West Pontus and other places.
The sea way linked the Greek centres of the North Black Sea littoral and Sarmatia with the Mediterranean, the West Pontus cities and Moesia Inferior. The Danube waterway had an impor-tent role of the glassware and glass semi-finished products delivery by the western Roman manufacture to the North Black Sea littoral. Province Pannonia-and the fortresses of the Low Danube limes, especially, Novidunum and Aliobryx nearby a modern village Orlovka at the Low Danube.
The roads from Dacia and the western Pontic cities of the Mesembria and Byzantium had lead to the North Pontus Greek cities. Further, this road going along the ancient trade way, which had been functioned from the Aeneolithic-Bronze Age.
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The passages were at the modern villages Orlovka-Novoselskoye at the Lower Danube, Mayaky at the Dniester’s mouth, Varvarovka- B. Koreniga and Kovaievka-Troitzkoye at the South Bug. The Sarmatian burials with the glassware funeral gifts are indicates here. Further, this road passed into the Crimea, to Tanais town and to the East. The part of Roman glassware have been transported into the Don and Volga rivers areas through this arterial road.
It is a different role of the separate Greek cities of the North Black Sea littoral to the glassware spreading in barbarian environment. Tyra was a main supplier of such production to the nomads of the North-western Black Sea littoral. Olbia in spite of at the first centuries AD was a prominent consumer of the various wares and have been produced itself some their sorts, it furnished restrictive the Sarmatae with glassware. The nomads have not any influence to the history of Olbia city-state. The Sarmatian burials have been locates arranged by arch in the sizeable distance from Olbia polis’ boundary. Glassware are absent here with the exception of a grave in barrow «Sokolova Mogila» nearby Kovalevka village.
Greek city Chersonesus in Tauris also had not great roie in the local nomads supplying of the glassware. Its economic relations reached to the nearest neighbourhood. Chersonesus had been purveyed the foreign and local glassware to the barbarian population, which resided at the valleys of Belbek, Kachy, Bodrak and Alma rivers to the south-western direction, and also to the inhabitants of the Balaklava, Karalez, Shulsk, Inkerman and Baydarsk valleys, the south-eastern one.
The cities of the Bosporus kingdom Panticapaeum and Phanagoria were conducive to relations of the barbarian population lived at the Don, Kuban and Volga areas with the Greek world of the Mediterranean region and Rome. A trade way from Bosporus to the Don and Volga rivers intensively functioned at the last centuries BC to the first centuries AD.
A Greek city Tanais had also the great economic relations
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with the Sarmatae tribes at the Don and Volga rivers region. According to Strabo, this city was «a general trading market place of the Asiatic and European nomads and who are sailing from Bosporus through the lake (the Sea of Azov); the first delivered the slaves, skin and various another goods by nomads, others ones brought on their ships the clothes, wine and other things, which characteristic of the civilized mode of life» (Strabo. 11.2.3). Among these goods which characterised «the civilized way of life» and come on this emporium and through its mediation to the Sarmatae, were the glassware too.
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