Скачать (прямая ссылка):
the world history is set forth. It is significant that the conclusion
about primitive nature of nomadic societies was mainly specific for
russian (before 1917) and western studies of XVTII-H cc. In soviet
studies, dogmatic theory of nomadic feudalism predominated for a long
time* At present there are the following main points of view upon
1) primitive pre-class society; 2) early state; 3) feudalism; 4-) nomadic
mode of production*
CHAPTER OKS is devoted to the economy of nomadism. It was extensive and
depended on ecology greatly. All nomads1 energy could not be used in
pastoral economy. Nomads needed products of agriculture and handicraft.lt
urgad them to trade and to be at war with agricultures. In case of war
they needed integration into "tribal confederation"f chiefdom or nomad
In the SECOND CHAPTER relations of ownership of land and cattle, forms of
domination and exploitation between rich and poor herdsmen are concerned.
The cattle was a private property and the land was a common property.
There was in a limited degree a slavery, exploitation of chienta
redistribution and tax exploitation of free herdsmen at nomads-The war,
robbery, intermediary trade and tribute from agricul-turers were the main
forms of exploitation at pastoral nomads.
In the ШШ) сндртав socio-political organisation of nomads is analysed,
This organization had not changed since the beginnings of pastoraliem
till it*s decay. According to their internal development nomads were a
chiefdom, but in relation to townspeople and agriculturers they made
specific external exploiting state. It is possible to call suck society
and form of exploitation as exopolitary (Greek!nexo"- outside,
1rpolitia*V society* state). In such society nomadic chiefs were
officials and military commanders and ordinary heru^men were solders* The
largest form of nomad exopolitary societies is nomad empire. It is
possible to distinguish three types of nomad empires: 1) trflical: 2)
tributai: 5) transitional.
In CONCLUSION nomad societies are compared with "ideal types1' of
diffirent modes of production; primitive, asian, antique- slave owning
and feudal. Nomadism belongs to primitive and traditional atag^Sj but
it*s development potentiality Is interior to agrarian-urban societies.
Nomadism typologically is a special blind way of social evolution- The
base of it is exopolitarv mode of production* which was spread not only
at nomads but also at vikings, eossaclcs* pirates and robbers-