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history-library.com -> Добавить материалы на сайт -> История Китая -> Кореняко В.А. -> "Искусство народов центральной Азии и звериный стиль" -> 149

Искусство народов центральной Азии и звериный стиль - Кореняко В.А.

Кореняко В.А. Искусство народов центральной Азии и звериный стиль — М.: РАН, 2002. — 327 c.
Скачать (прямая ссылка): iskusstvonarodovcentralnoyaziizveriniystil2002.pdf
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АСГЭ - Археологический сборник Государственного Эрмитажа
БСЭ - Большая Советская Энциклопедия
ГАИМК - Государственная Академия истории материальной культуры
КСИА - Краткие сообщения Института археологии РАН (АН СССР)
КСИИМК - Краткие сообщения о докладах и полевых исследованиях
Института истории
материальной культуры АН СССР МАИКЦА - Международная ассоциация по
изучению культур Центральной Азии при ЮНЕСКО
МАЭ - Музей антропологии и этнографии им. Петра Великого
(Кунсткамера)
МИА - Материалы и исследования по археологии СССР
МИАР - Материалы по истории и археологии России
НИИХП - Научно-исследовательский институт художественной
промышленности
НИИЯЛИ - Научно-исследовательский институт языка, литературы и
истории
РЭМ - Российский этнографический музей
СА - Советская археология
СЭ - Советская этнография
УЗ - Ученые записки
PIAC - Permanent International Altaistic Conference
SUMMARY
The book presented is aimed generally at the comparative analysis of the
two most colourful phenomena in the history of Eurasian nomadism. On the
one hand, the art of the early nomads of the 1st millennium B.C. is
discussed in Russian bibliography under somewhat conventional and
cumbersome though widely accepted term "Scythian-Siberian animal style".
On the other hand, the book deals with the animalistic art of the nomadic
peoples who inhabited the Central Asia in the 19th-20th centuries.
The Scythian-Siberian animal style covers the vast belt of Eurasian
steppes, forest-steppes, semi-deserts, and mountains from the Dniester in
the west almost to the Yellow sea in the east. The art under discussion
had emerged in the first half of the 1st millennium B.C., a period marked
by the appearance of the Scythians, Sauromats, and Sakas on the historic
scene. It declined in the early centuries A.D., when domination of the
Sarmatians had ceased in western part of Eurasia, and that of the Huns in
its eastern part. In the following epoch the medieval nomadic peoples
generally developed ornamental motifs in art. Though representations of
animals are known archaeologi-cally from medieval sites as well, still
zoomorphic subjects are rather exceptions, rare inclusions within an area
filled with floral and geometric designs.
Medieval nomadic art in Eurasia dated to the epoch up to the 14th-15th
centuries is known well enough. The period between the 15th century and
the earliest ethnographic collections from Central Asia preserved in
museums (the 19th century) represents practically a gap, as far as pieces
of art are concerned.
In the folk art of the 19th - early 20th centuries a new flowering of
animalistic art is observed. Nomadic cultures again display a huge number
of animals' representations. But this "animalistic Renaissance" never
occurred in the Islamic world, i.e. in the cultures of steppe Turkic
peoples who dwelt between the Dniester and the Tien Shan. One can find it
only within the eastern part of the ancient area once occupied by
Scythian-Siberian animal style, namely in Central Asia.
In English bibliography the differences between the terms "Central Asia",
"Innermost Asia", and "Middle Asia" are not of principal character. In
Russian geographical science the term "Central Asia" is applied to the
territory bordered from the north by the Altai and Sayan mountains, Lake
Baikal, and the Yablonovy range, from the south by the Himalayas, from
the west by the Pamirs and Tien Shan, from the east by the ranges of
Bolshoi Khingan and Taikhanshan, and the Chino-Tibetan mountains.
Politically this area covers South Siberia, Mongolia, and western part of
China.
The Central Asiatic peoples' traditional art of the 19th-20th centuries
is studied 320 and represented in museum collections unevenly. In this
investigation the attention is
Summary
turned mainly to the animalistic art of the Mongols, Buryats, and
Tuvinians, and, to a lesser degree, to that of the Tibetans, Altais, and
Uigurs. The author bases his conclusions on the study of pieces of art
preseved in the museums of Russian Federation (Moscow, St.Petersburg,
Kyzyl, Ulhan-Ude, Barnaul, Biysk, Gorno-Altaisk, Irkutsk, Kazan,
Minusinsk, Chita) and Mongolia.
Chapter I contains a historiographic essay.
In spite of the fact that the chronological gap dividing the decline of
Scythian-Siberian animal style in the early centuries A.D. and the folk
art of the 19th-20th centuries is 1600-1700 years wide, and during such a
long period animalistic art did not play any significant role among the
nomads, the idea of similarity of early and new animalistic style as such
did attract the attention of numerous scholars.
In historiography of the problem three basic aspects are clearly
outlined: 1 - the publications exclusively devoted to the problem of
reminiscences of Scythian-Siberian animal style in Central Asiatic folk
art; 2 - the works regarding this problem basing on the material from
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