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Искусство народов центральной Азии и звериный стиль - Кореняко В.А.

Кореняко В.А. Искусство народов центральной Азии и звериный стиль — М.: РАН, 2002. — 327 c.
Скачать (прямая ссылка): iskusstvonarodovcentralnoyaziizveriniystil2002.pdf
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artistic expression. Archaeologists' efforts are directed at comparative-
typological analysis of one side of this unity, i.e. animal images. To
the study of the second and perhaps more important side of this stylistic
unity, i.e. the means of artistic expression, art critics should
contribute their share to this work.
In order to solve the problem of artistic style origin it's necessary to
reconstruct style-forming factors. Archaeologists' investigations are
directed at finding among relics of the past works of art similar to
animal style. Such diachronic researches can result in giving answers to
the questions about when and where animal style of the ancient nomads
came into being. But the reasons of it's emergence can't be explained,
since this attitude won't help us to name those style-forming factors
that were in action in the epoch of ancient nomads, gave rise to
Scythian-Siberian animal style art and stimulated its existence in a
certain ecological and socio-cultural environment.
Scythian-Siberian animal style art was spread on vast tracts having
enveloped areas of various language families. So ethnic specific
character can't be referred to the major style-forming factors of art of
ancient nomads. It means that we can refer this style to the so-called
great styles. Different researches have already endeavoured to compare
Scythian-Siberian animal style with the great styles of the latest
epochs, such as impressionism, baroque and other. Though it sounds
paradoxical, interpretation of leading images of ancient nomad art by
means of artistic expression has a most con-vicing conformity with one of
the latest styles of new times, that is expressionism. The major common
feature of both phenomena is their acute expressiveness.
It is achieved by deformation of natural forms that in both styles is the
intentional artistic method and main means of stylization. The detailed
classification of visual dis-324 tortion of depicted forms worked out by
L.F.Zhegin entirely corresponds to the facts of
Scythian-Siberian animal style. Artistic essence of the early nomad
animal art can be defined in short as the art of expressive deformation.
This definition gives us an opportunity to start searching of major
style-forming factors of the early nomad art inside, not outside its
area. V.B.Mirimanov's* concept of direct dependence of quantitative and
qualitative deformation in the works of primitive and traditional art on
the social structure and intraethnic tension can be applied to the social
and socio-psychological peculiarities of the early nomad societies. Many
a researcher pointed out a concrete social group whose aesthetic and
psychological needs animal style art catered for in the first place. That
social group was defined as a retainers squad, military caste or age
category of young horsemen-warriors. It may be possible to try to
reconstruct those peculiarities of public status, occupations and state
of mind of a given social group which correlated its choice of
"expressive deformation style" as the most clear art that pleased the
Historical and ethnographical data give evidence that in ancient and
medieval nomad societies a certain social group was mainly involved not
wars but in battue hunting for big hoofed animals and beasts of prey.
Hunting battues were the major way of battle training of warriors, and
they easily turned into military actions. Of great interest is the
evidence that in the golden age of battue huntings it was considered to
be normal not to kill animals encircled but to combat with them hand-to-
hand in order to hobble and tie live prey.
Since we deal with relatively late written records and ethnographical
relics and try to restore the ancient reality retrospectively, it is
necessary to introduce a certain coefficient that would accentuate the
significance of ancient warriors-hunters' participation in battues, their
specific state of mind not only during hunting, but as their own
distinctive feature peculiar to a certain hunting pack of "dogs-
It can be surmised that members of social groups of war riors-hunters had
a combination of psychical distinctive features corresponding to such
notions as behaviour expressiveness and character accentuation. It can be
partly explained by a rather strict unbiassed selection of the members of
a group. They were not only warriors and hunters but also horsemen in the
time when there were no stirrups and hard saddles.
It's quite possible to reconstruct at least two concrete style-forming
factors which mattered a lot in the process of Scythian-Siberian animal
style formation. The first on is battue hunts of social groups of young
horsemen-warriors, accompanied by hand-to-hand combats with big hoofed
animals and beasts of prey which in a bound, "deformed" shape turned out
to be peculiar "natural models" for the nascent art of expressive
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